The Human Digestive System Facts

The system you need to care most for enjoying the relishing tastes of blessed life! Digestion can be regarded as a kind of catabolism which is one of two major processes of metabolism, while the other being anabolism. Gastrointestinal or alimentary canal system, as a broader term, refers to the mechanical as well as biochemical disintegration of dry, stiff and sizable dietary substances into smaller and simpler molecules. Starting right from your mouth and ending at anus, it consists of a long digestive canal with complementary organs that assist in its overall functioning. The organ system is capable of digesting a number of dietary items, like carbohydrates (starches), proteins and lipids with the help of various fluids, acidic secretions, enzymes and chemicals that are poured into the digestive tract at different points.

Major organs and contributing parts of the gastrointestinal food digestion include mouth chamber, esophageal tube (or food pipe), stomach, small bowel (ileum, duodenum, jejunum), colon (transverse, ascending and descending), rectum and anal opening, etc. The major accessory organs that make complementary contribution to the efficiency of digestion procedures are five in number, namely, pancreas, liver (vital gland), tongue (manipulation of food and phonation), gallbladder and salivary glands. The glandular structures in mouth secrete saliva, and initiate the digestion of simple carbohydrates in the mouth (first phase of digestion), and food pipe (esophagus) transfers boluses of food into stomach with the help of peristaltic movement through cardiac sphincter (gastroesophageal junction). Stomach (through its contractions and gastric juice secretion) helps in churning of food, killing germs, digestion of proteins and maintenance of an ideal pH (power of H+) for enzymatic actions.

Major function of the system is to convert large and complex particles of food into smaller and simpler compounds/molecules that can be easily absorbed into the blood stream and transported to all the living cells where they are metabolized for energy extraction to carry out the alpha to omega activities in the body. However, digestive system (particularly stomach with its acidic secretions) also plays a significant role in the killing of harmful, disease causing microbes and viruses that enter the body through water or engulfed with food.

Parts

Parts of digestive system can be grouped into two categories, namely, primary organs and accessory organ, where the primary organs are those that form the basic components of elementary canal, like mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus.

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Functions

The gastrointestinal organization in humans and other advanced members of Kingdom Animalia is furnished with well-developed structure and unique features that are capable of performing a variety of functions, for example, selection of food, grinding, mastication, lubrication, oral digestion, enzymatic secretions, acidic release, absorption and packaging the residue for waste disposal.

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Diseases

Dozens of abnormalities have been found associated with the gastrointestinal system, some of which are mild while others may lead to the immediate death of the victim.

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